Diễn đàn Paltalk TiengNoi TuDo Cua NguoiDan VietNam

March 24, 2008

Hoàng Sa (Paracel Islands) – Trường Sa (Spratly Islands): trữ lường dầu khí KHÁ LỚN !

– Hoàng Sa (Tây Sa = Xisha Islands = Paracel Islands)

– Trường Sa (Nam Sa = Nansha Islands = Spratly Islands) 
– 2008 Mỹ tìm thấy nhiều khí đốt ở Việt Nam

Hoàng sa:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracel_Islands


Trường sa:
.

.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spratly_Islands


Số lượng dầu khí ước lượng ở vùng quần đảo Trường Sa : KHÁ LỚN !!

Political dispute

There are multiple reasons why the neighboring nations would be interested in the Spratly Islands. In 1968 oil was discovered in the region. The Geology and Mineral Resources Ministry of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has estimated that the Spratly area holds oil and natural gas reserves of 17.7 billion tons (1.60 × 1010 kg), as compared to the 13 billion tons (1.17 × 1010 kg) held by Kuwait, placing it as the fourth largest reserve bed in the world. Naturally, these large reserves assisted in intensifying the situation and propelled the territorial claims of the neighboring countries. On 11 March 1976, the first major Philippine oil discovery occurred off the coast of Palawan, within the Spratly Islands territory, and these oil fields now account for fifteen percent of all petroleum consumed in the Philippines. In 1992, the PRC and Vietnam granted oil exploration contracts to U.S. oil companies that covered overlapping areas in the Spratlys. In May 1992, the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Crestone Energy (a U.S. company based in Denver, Colorado) signed a cooperation contract for the joint exploration of the Wan’an Bei-21 block, a 25,155 km² section of the southwestern South China Sea that includes Spratly Island areas. Part of the Crestone’s contract covered Vietnam’s blocks 133 and 134, where PetroVietnam and ConocoPhillips Vietnam Exploration & Production, a unit of ConocoPhillips, agreed to evaluate prospects in April 1992. This led to a confrontation between China and Vietnam, with each demanding that the other cancel its contract.

An additional motive is the region’s role as one of the world’s most productive areas for commercial fishing. In 1988, for example, the South China Sea accounted for eight percent of the total world catch, a figure which has certainly risen. The PRC has predicted that the South China Sea holds combined fishing and oil and gas resources worth one trillion dollars. There have already been numerous clashes between the Philippines and other nations — particularly the PRC — over foreign fishing vessels in its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the media regularly report the arrest of Chinese fishermen. In 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island.

The region is also one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. During the 1980s, at least two hundred and seventy ships passed through the Spratly Islands region each day, and currently more than half of the world’s supertanker traffic, by tonnage, passes through the region’s waters every year. Tanker traffic through the South China Sea is over three times greater than through the Suez Canal and five times more than through the Panama Canal; twenty five percent of the world’s crude oil passes through the South China Sea.

There have been occasional naval clashes over the Spratly Islands. In 1988, China and Vietnam clashed at sea over possession of Johnson Reef in the Spratlys. Chinese gunboats sank Vietnamese transport ships supporting a landing party of Vietnamese soldiers.

In response to growing concerns by coastal states regarding encroachments by foreign vessels on their natural resources, the United Nations convened the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 1982 to determine the issue of international sea boundaries. In response to these concerns, it was resolved that a coastal state could claim two hundred nautical miles of jurisdiction beyond its land boundaries. However UNCLOS failed to address the issue of how to adjudicate on overlapping claims and so the future of the islands remains clouded.

Following a 1995 dispute between China and the Philippines an ASEAN-brokered agreement was reached between the PRC and ASEAN member nations whereby a nation would inform the others of any military movement within the disputed territory and that there would be no further construction. The agreement was promptly violated by China and Malaysia. Claiming storm damage, seven Chinese naval vessels entered the area to repair “fishing shelters” in Panganiban Reef. Malaysia erected a structure on Investigator Shoal and landed at Rizal Reef. In response the Philippines lodged formal protests, demanded the removal of the structures, increased naval patrols in Kalayaan and issued invitations to American politicians to inspect the PRC bases by plane.

In the early 21st century, the situation is improving. China recently held talks with ASEAN countries aimed at realizing a proposal for a free trade area between the ten countries involved. China and ASEAN also have been engaged in talks to create a code of conduct aimed at easing tensions in the disputed islands. On 5 March 2002, an agreement was reached, setting forth the desire of the claimant nations to resolve the problem of sovereignty “without further use of force”[citation needed]. In November 2002, a Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea was signed, easing tensions but falling short of a legally-binding code of conduct. 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spratly_Islands#Political_dispute

différends politiques :
 Il existe de multiples raisons pour lesquelles les nations voisines seraient intéressés par les îles Spratly. In 1968 oil was discovered in the region. En 1968, on a découvert du pétrole dans la région. The Geology and Mineral Resources Ministry of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) has estimated that the Spratly area holds oil and natural gas reserves of 17.7 billion tons (1.60 × 10 10 kg), as compared to the 13 billion tons (1.17 × 10 10 kg) held by Kuwait , placing it as the fourth largest reserve bed in the world. La géologie et des ressources minérales du ministère de la République populaire de Chine (RPC) a estimé que la région détient Spratly pétrole et de gaz naturel de 17,7 milliards de tonnes (1,60 × 10 10 kg), comparé aux 13 milliards de tonnes (1,17 × 10 10 kg) détenu par le Koweït, la plaçant comme la quatrième plus grande réserve lit dans le monde. Naturally, these large reserves assisted in intensifying the situation and propelled the territorial claims of the neighboring countries. Naturellement, ces grandes réserves contribué à l’intensification de la situation et propulsé les revendications territoriales des pays limitrophes. On 11 March 1976 , the first major Philippine oil discovery occurred off the coast of Palawan , within the Spratly Islands territory, and these oil fields now account for fifteen percent of all petroleum consumed in the Philippines. Le 11 mars 1976, la première grande découverte de pétrole survenu Philippine large de la côte de Palawan, dans le territoire des îles Spratly, et ces champs de pétrole représentent désormais quinze pour cent de l’ensemble du pétrole consommé dans les Philippines. In 1992, the PRC and Vietnam granted oil exploration contracts to US oil companies that covered overlapping areas in the Spratlys. En 1992, la République populaire de Chine et du Vietnam accordé des contrats d’exploration pétrolière à des compagnies pétrolières américaines qui chevauchent les zones couvertes dans les îles Spratly. In May 1992, the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) and Crestone Energy (a US company based in Denver, Colorado ) signed a cooperation contract for the joint exploration of the Wan’an Bei-21 block, a 25,155 km² section of the southwestern South China Sea that includes Spratly Island areas. En mai 1992, la China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) et la Crestone Energy (une société américaine basée à Denver, Colorado) ont signé un contrat de coopération pour l’étude conjointe de la Wan’an Bei bloc-21, un 25155 km ² de la section Le sud-ouest de la mer de Chine méridionale qui comprend Spratly Island domaines. Part of the Crestone’s contract covered Vietnam’s blocks 133 and 134, where PetroVietnam and ConocoPhillips Vietnam Exploration & Production, a unit of ConocoPhillips , agreed to evaluate prospects in April 1992. Une partie de la Crestone le couvert du Vietnam blocs 133 et 134, où PetroVietnam et ConocoPhillips Vietnam Exploration & Production, une unité de ConocoPhillips, a accepté d’évaluer les perspectives en avril 1992. This led to a confrontation between China and Vietnam, with each demanding that the other cancel its contract. Cela a conduit à un affrontement entre la Chine et le Vietnam, les uns avec les autres exigeant que le résilier son contrat.

An additional motive is the region’s role as one of the world’s most productive areas for commercial fishing. Un autre motif est le rôle de la région comme l’un des pays les plus productifs pour les zones de pêche commerciale. In 1988, for example, the South China Sea accounted for eight percent of the total world catch, a figure which has certainly risen. En 1988, par exemple, la mer de Chine du Sud a représenté huit pour cent du total des captures mondiales, un chiffre qui a certainement augmenté. The PRC has predicted that the South China Sea holds combined fishing and oil and gas resources worth one trillion dollars . La République populaire de Chine a prédit que la mer de Chine du Sud détient combiné pêche et ressources pétrolières et gazières valent un billion de dollars. There have already been numerous clashes between the Philippines and other nations — particularly the PRC — over foreign fishing vessels in its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the media regularly report the arrest of Chinese fishermen. Il ya déjà eu de nombreux accrochages entre les Philippines et d’autres pays – en particulier la République populaire de Chine – plus de bateaux de pêche étrangers dans sa zone économique exclusive (ZEE) et les médias rendent compte régulièrement à l’arrestation de pêcheurs chinois. In 1984, Brunei established an exclusive fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in the southern Spratly Islands, but has not publicly claimed the island. En 1984, le Brunéi établi une zone de pêche exclusive englobant Louisa Reef dans le sud des îles Spratly, mais n’a pas revendiqué publiquement l’île.

The region is also one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. La région est aussi l’une des voies maritimes les plus achalandés au monde. During the 1980s, at least two hundred and seventy ships passed through the Spratly Islands region each day, and currently more than half of the world’s supertanker traffic, by tonnage, passes through the region’s waters every year. Pendant les années 1980, au moins deux cent soixante-dix navires passés par les îles Spratly région chaque jour, et actuellement plus de la moitié du trafic mondial de superpétrolier, le tonnage, passe à travers les eaux de la région chaque année. Tanker traffic through the South China Sea is over three times greater than through the Suez Canal and five times more than through the Panama Canal ; twenty five percent of the world’s crude oil passes through the South China Sea. Le trafic des navires à travers la mer de Chine méridionale est plus de trois fois plus élevé que par le canal de Suez et cinq fois plus que par le canal de Panama, vingt cinq pour cent des réserves mondiales de pétrole brut passe à travers la mer de Chine méridionale.

http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FSpratly_Islands%23Political_dispute&langpair=en%7Cfr&hl=fr&ie=UTF-8 

truongsa1.jpg


 Liên quan:

  • Sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands, by Monique Chemillier-Gendreau
  • CIA World Factbook for Paracel Islands
  • Territorial claims in the Spratly and Paracel Islands
  • Paracels Islands Dispute
  • Spratly Islands
    In 1950’s China seized additional Hoang Sa (Paracels) islands, which it forcibly repeated in 1974. Vietnam claims that these acts were unlawful and that the
    http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/spratly.htm
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    2 Comments »

    1. […] quan: – Hoàng Sa (Paracel Islands) – Trường Sa (Spratly Islands) – Spratly […]

      Pingback by Mỹ tìm thấy nhiều khí đốt ở Việt Nam « Diễn đàn Paltalk TiengNoi TuDo Cua NguoiDan VietNam — March 25, 2008 @ 3:15 pm

    2. […]  Hoàng Sa (Paracel Islands) – Trường Sa (Spratly Islands): trữ lường dầu khí KHÁ LỚN … […]

      Pingback by Hình ảnh TQ đang chiếm đóng bất hợp pháp Hoàng Sa của VN « Diễn đàn Paltalk TiengNoi TuDo Cua NguoiDan VietNam — April 26, 2008 @ 3:38 am


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